我的未来不是梦,换年号没那么简略,日本在忙乱中走向“令和”,义乌小商品批发市场

频道:推荐新闻 日期: 浏览:314

来历 NYT教育频道

现任天皇明仁在2017年年底宣告了退位的计划,给了日本近一年半的时刻来为他的逊位做预备。 FRANCK ROBICHON/EPA, VIA SHUTTERSTOCK

TOKYO — Lost data。 Emails that disappear into the ether。 Servers that never connect。

东京——数据丢掉。邮件消失。服务器连不上。

All thanks to the ascension of a new emperor to the Chrysanthemum Throne。

这全都是由于一位新天皇登上了菊花宝座。

Japan is scrambling to update software, revise forms and print new calendars before May 1, when the world’s third-largest economy begins a new imperial era。 For most of the rest of the world, it will remain the year 2019 when the clock strikes midnight。 Across Japan, which relies internally on an ancient calendar that honors a reigning emperor, it will be the first day of the first year of the age of Reiwa。

日本各界正竞相赶在5月1日前更新软件、修正表格并印制新日历,到时这个全球第三大经济体将敞开新的天皇年代。对国际其他大部分区域而言,当那一天午夜的钟声敲响,仍将是2019年。而在日本各地,由于选用留念在位天皇的古代历法,那将是令和年代元年的第一天。

The new era, christened just weeks ago, will force the country’s sprawling bureaucracy to literally turn back the clock to Year 1。 Experts compare it to Y2K, the digital threat in the lead-up to the year 2000, if on a much smaller and less consequential scale。

新的年号于数周前刚发布,这将迫使日本巨大的官僚体系直接把编年调回到元年。专家将其与步入2000年时曾遭受的数字要挟千年虫(Y2K)问题混为一谈,只不过这次规划和影响较小算了。

“The change of the era name will have a huge effect on big companies that have complicated systems,” said Gaku Moriya, deputy director of the information technology innovation division at Japan’s Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry, or METI。

“更改年号将对有着杂乱体系的大公司发生巨大影响,” 日本经济工业省信息技术创新部分的副主管守谷学说。

Major companies with relatively modern systems will most likely handle the shift with aplomb。 Still, the full consequences are not entirely clear, and for many the change will not be cheap。 Every government form, including tax returns and marriage registrations, uses the imperial-style calendar, making it impossible for government workers and companies to avoid。

具有相对现代体系的大公司很或许将冷静应对这一改动。但是,其全面影响尚不彻底清楚,且对许多人而言,这样的改动也不廉价。包含退税和婚姻挂号在内的一切官方表格都运用皇历,这使得政府职工和企业都无法防止这个问题。

Already the tally is mounting。 The city of Nagoya, an industrial center in central Japan, estimates it alone will spend about $4.3 million dollars preparing for the new era。 In the city of Koga, employees preparing for the changeover accidentally erased 1,650 water bills。 Scam artists have sent out letters that target older people, telling them to submit personal information to ensure that their bank accounts make the transition, according to the national broadcaster NHK。

本钱已在攀升。日本中部的工业中心名古屋估量,仅该市就将花费约430万美元用于新年代的预备作业。在古河市,为这一改动做预备的职工一不小心便抹掉了1650个水费账单。据日本全国性电视台NHK报导,有骗子专门给老年人发信,让其提交个人信息,以保证他们的银行账户完结年号的更迭。

For those companies that cannot get their paperwork in order by the deadline, METI recommends a distinctly old-school solution: correcting documents with rubber stamps bearing the Japanese characters for the new year。

关于那些无法在截止日期前做好文书作业的企业,经济工业省引荐了一种无疑很老派的解决方法:用带有新年号的日文橡皮印章更改文件。

At a small factory in the outskirts of Tokyo, just three days after the “Reiwa” name was announced, Osamu Takiguchi and a crew of about 20 worked overtime to rush out orders of the distinctly Japanese product。

在东京市郊的一家小工厂,“令和”年号发布仅三日,泷口修(音,Osamu Takiguchi)和20名左右的工人便在加班加点赶制这一极具日本特征的产品订单。

“We ran out of rubber in the first three days,” said Mr。 Takiguchi, managing director of Hanko 21, an office supply chain that owns the factory。 He said he was considering hiring temporary staff to help with the last-minute rush he expected at the end of the month。

“头三天咱们的橡胶就用完了,”具有这家工厂的作业用品供应链Hanko21的总经理泷口说。他表明正在考虑雇临时工帮助应对估计月底最终一刻的忙乱。

The headaches have prompted a national conversation over whether it is finally time for Japan to move entirely over to the Gregorian calendar。 The country uses the Gregorian calendar when dealing with other countries and to coordinate global events, such as the 2020 Olympics。 Most people here have also already adopted it in their personal lives。

种种难题引发了全国性的评论,本日本是否总算到了该彻底选用公历的时分。日本在与他国打交道及和谐2020年奥运会这类全球事务方面选用公历。这儿的多数人也现已在个人日子中选用了公历。

One lawyer, Jiro Yamane, has even sued the government over the change, arguing that forcing people to measure time by the life of the emperor violates their constitutional right to individual dignity。

律师山根次郎(音,Jiro Yamane)乃至就这一改动申述政府,称迫使人们依照天皇的生命计时违反了他们在宪法上的人格权。

“Only Japan exists in this different space and dimension of time,” said Mr。 Yamane, who is scheduled to argue his case in front of a Tokyo district court at the end of May。 “It’s incompatible with international society。”

“唯一日本存在于这一异乎寻常的空间与时刻维度傍边,”山根说,他将于5月底在东京区域法院陈说案由。“这与国际社会方枘圆凿。”

“Why are the Japanese so hung up on it?” he added。

“为什么日本人要如此执迷于此呢?”他接着说。

It may just be that Japan has a hard time letting go。 The country still depends on fax machines。 It is one of the last places in the world where Tower Records, the once iconic music store, has stayed open, still selling CDs。

或许日本仅仅很难抛弃传统。这个国家仍遍及运用传真机。它也是从前标志性的音乐商铺淘儿唱片(Tower Records)仍旧开业、售卖CD的国际最终几个国家之一。

The new era, to many, is symbolic of a fresh start。 Government offices expect couples will rush to register their marriages on the first day of the new era。

对许多人来说,新年代标志着新的开端。政府部分估计,会有许多情侣在新年代的第一天匆忙挂号成婚。

The Japanese adopted the imperial calendar from the Chinese in the seventh century, and government agencies have been required to use it since the late 1970s。 Other countries in the region, including China itself, have moved on and adopted the Gregorian calendar for official business。

日本人于公元七世纪从我国引进了年号,自1970年代末起,政府组织也被要求运用这种编年法。该区域的其他国家,包含我国在内,官方作业都选用公历。

Japan hasn’t had to face a calendar change for a generation — and that was before the hyper-speed computer era。

日本现已有整整一代人不从前历年号的改动——上一次改动时,高速电脑的年代没有到来。

In 1989, when the calendar switched to the Heisei era from the Showa, the announcement was made the same day that Emperor Hirohito died。 Within 24 hours, much of the initial work of replacing signs and updating forms was done by hand。

1989年,裕仁天皇逝世的同一天,日本宣告将年号从昭和改为平成。在24小时内,大部分替换标识和更新表格的开始作业都是手艺完结的。

千叶县的工厂职工在忙着赶制刻有新年号字样的新印章订单。 NORIKO HAYASHI FOR THE NEW YORK TIMES

This time, the transition has been more orderly。 The abdication date for the current emperor, Akihito, was announced in late 2017, giving the nation nearly a year and a half to get ready。

这一次的过渡愈加有序。日本现任天皇明仁的退位日期是在2017年底宣告的,这给了日本近一年半的时刻来预备。

Many did not。 As of March, one-fifth of over 2,700 companies polled by METI had not taken steps to prepare for the switch, the agency said。 Officials compounded the problem by keeping the new era’s name secret until April 1, just one month before the transition。

但许多人没有做好预备。日本经济工业省表明,到本年3月,在该组织查询的2700多家企业中,有五分之一没有为过渡做好预备。官员们将新年代的称号保密至4月1日,间隔新年号改动只要一个月,这使问题愈加扎手。

Government offices and domestic financial institutions, some of which rely on outdated computer systems, are the most likely to encounter problems, according to Mr。 Moriya of METI。

经济工业省的守谷说,政府组织和国内金融组织最有或许遇到问题,其间一些组织依靠过期的电脑体系。

“Some private companies may not be sufficiently aware of the issue, and don’t know what kind of problems they will have,” he said, adding that the agency had been holding private seminars to raise awareness。

“一些私营企业或许没有充沛意识到这个问题,也不知道他们会遇到什么样的问题,”他说。他还说,经济工业省一直在举行私家研讨会以进步人们的知道。

Microsoft has said it will push updated software to its clients via its cloud computing systems。 The vulnerable ones will probably be those who run older versions of Microsoft Windows or those that have not updated their systems。

微软表明将经过其云核算体系向客户推送更新后的软件。易受攻击的用户或许是那些运转较老版别的微软Windows或没有更新体系的用户。

In some cases, system administrators may have to update operating systems almost as old as the Heisei era itself。 Though the shift could be awkward or costly, it could also force more companies to get with the times, Mr。 Moriya said。

在某些情况下,体系管理员或许不得不更新简直与平成年代相同陈旧的操作体系。守谷说,转化进程或许会很扎手或贵重,但也或许迫使更多公司跟上年代的脚步。

“Some Japanese companies have used the same system for two or three decades,” he said。 “The inside of the system has turned into a black box。”

“一些日本公司现已运用相同的体系二三十年了,”他说。“体系内部现已变成了一个黑匣子。”

At the stamp factory, Mr。 Takiguchi said his company’s own computer system was being updated by an outside contractor。 “I’ve heard they’re moving us to the Western calendar。”

在印章厂,泷口说他公司的电脑体系正在由外部承包商更新。“我传闻他们要帮咱们换成西历。”

“They say it’s because it’s a pain to modify the system if the era changes again,” he added。

“他们说是由于假如年号再变,修正体系会很费事,”他说

As online orders pinged into the company’s inbox, a woman pulled red rubber sheets lined in “Reiwa” out of a chemical bath。 Another worker cut them into tiny squares that were soon to be glued on long, thin pieces of white composite wood。

网上订单源源不断地涌入该公司的收件箱时,一个女性从化学液体池里拿出了写着“令和”字样的赤色橡胶薄片。另一名工人把它们切成小方块,接下来会粘合在又长又薄的白色组成木材上。

Although Mr。 Takiguchi is happy for the business the changeover has brought, he admits it has created some difficulties even for him。

尽管泷口对这个改变带来的事务感到高兴,但他供认,这也给他带来了一些困难。

The end of Japan’s fiscal year in March is “already the busiest month for our industry, and the new-era demand will make us even busier,” he said。

他说,日本财政年度是在3月完毕,“这本来便是咱们这行最忙的一个月,新年号的订单让咱们更忙了。”

“It would have been much easier if we had learned the new name in the summer。”

“假如能在夏天知道这个新姓名,那就轻松多了。”

作者:Ben Dooley, Makiko Inoue,Hisako Ueno

翻译:李建芳、晋其角

window.STO=window.STO||{};window.STO.fw=new Date().getTime();